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O-Ring Types and O-Ring Material Makeup - A Guide

    Rubber O rings are a form of gasket or seal that features a round cross-section. They are commonly used to prevent leaks of either fluids or gases from occurring in products, systems, or machinery and find use across a variety of industries. Because of their low cost, simple production process, ease of installation, and pressure resistance, they have found application in a lot of common products, such as automobiles and engines. The aerospace industry useso-ringsin many types of rockets and aircraft applications.

    This article will review information on the types of o-rings and material options available, along with their suitability for different applications.

    Selection Factors

    The fact that o-rings can function in so many applications is largely attributable to the fact that there is a wide range of materials available from which they may be fabricated.This range of selection allows the designer to consider the properties of the material and select a suitable option based on how well that material performs against the expected operating conditions of the application. The factors that are usually considered when selecting a material for an o-ring include:

    The material’s compressibility or hardness (durometer)

    The performance against environmental and operational conditions, including:

    Oils

    Solvents

    Acids

    Bases

    Steam

    Fuels

    Corrosive chemicals

    The abrasion performance of the material

    The permeability of the material (permeation)

    The cost of the material

    O-rings are usually produced from some form of elastic polymer or elastomer. These polymers are cured, often through vulcanization, resulting in improved strength, durability, and elasticity. Different materials have different properties, though, with some exhibiting greater elasticity and others possessing more tear-resistance.

    PTFE

    Temperature range:Between -100 degrees Fahrenheit and 500 degrees Fahrenheit.

    Suited forTongueurePTFE O ringsare very rigid and hard to apply, butPTFEencapsulated o-rings handle surface wear well, in addition to exhibiting corrosion and abrasion resistance, non-permeability, chemical inertness, and low absorption.

    Avoid:Like silicone,PTFEis rigid and is better suited to static applications.

    Applications:Examples of PTFE o-ring uses include automotive steering devices and paint guns.

    O-rings Information

    Solid O-ring is solid-rubber seals that are shaped like a doughnut. When pressed between two mating surfaces, O-rings block the passage of liquids or gases.

    Types of Seals

    O-rings can form a static or dynamic seals. A static seal is where the O-ring does not move and is used simply for containing pressure or maintaining a vacuum.Dynamic sealscan be reciprocating (like a piston and cylinder), or rotating (shaft rotating in a housing). Straight threads used with O-rings provide a better seal than tapered threads used alone.

    A boss seal is also an O-ring, however it does not fit the standard sizes for an O-ring. A boss is a cylindrical projection on a casting or forging. The end of that projection is machined to provide a flat, smooth surface for sealing.

    Application Methods

    Axial squeeze and radial squeeze are two methods for applying an O-ring. An axial squeeze is when the ring is compressed parallel to a line drawn through the center or axis of the ring. In a radial squeeze the ring is compressed between the internal diameter (ID) and overall diameter (OD).

    Specifications

    Imporant specifications for hollow O-ring include size, material, hardness rating and features.

    X-Rings

    Rubber X-ring is a torus (donut) shaped seal with a clover shaped cross section. Because of the clover design, the X-ring has a lower coefficient of friction and has multiple sealing surfaces on each side increasing its sealing ability and reduces the amount of force needed to seal and so extends the life of the seal. X-Rings are interchangeable with O-rings especially where lower coefficient of friction values are required.

    X-Ring Advantages

    The design of an X-Ring eliminates the effect the flash lines has on its sealing ability. In an O-Ring flash lines are on the outer and inner diameter, which are sealing surfaces. Excessive flash can effect the ability of the sealing surface to provide a tight seal. On an X-Ring flash is not an issue.

    The grooves on the sides of the X-Ring can retain lubricant, lowering friction and extending the life for the seal. Also, the X-Ring’s clover leaf design provides 2 sealing surfaces per side as opposed to one sealing surface per side on an O- ring. With the multi-sealing seal points on one ring, less compression is needed to obtain an effective seal. Less friction and wear will ultimately increase service life and reduce downtime.

    All-rubber V-rings

    Rubber V-ring is used for rotating shafts in an extremely wide range of applications. The V-ring can be used alone to protect a wide assortment of bearing types from contaminants while reliably retaining the lubricant. They are also often used as secondary seals to protect primary seals in highly contaminated environments.

      V-rings are installed on shafts and their thin, tapered lip seals against a counterface perpendicular to the shaft. V-rings have an interference fit on the shaft, rotate with it and act as flingers. Angular misalignment of the shaft relative to the counterface can be tolerated. V-rings provide reliable sealing even if the shaft is out-of-round or rotates eccentrically. The amount by which the shaft can be displaced axially is governed by the permissible displacement of the V-ring relative to its counterface.
                               
      V-rings are made entirely of elastomers without fabric or metal reinforcement and are therefore easy to install. They can be stretched and, depending on size, pushed over other components like flanges, pulleys or even housings. This is a very valuable feature, especially when replacing a seal.

    Four Reasons to Use Air Hoses Instead of Hydraulics

    In the manufacturing world you might ask when or why should I use air hose instead of hydraulic hose?Pneumatics follow the same power movement principle as hydraulics except it involves the movement of gases instead of fluids.While pneumatics and hydraulics each have their ideal places in a wide range of industrial operations, there are times when it’s beneficial to use air hoses to meet your needs.

    Four Reasons to Use Air Hoses

    1. Clean power: Pneumatics is cleaner than hydraulics.If there’s a leak, only air isreleased instead of slick fluids which are dangerous and hard to clean.

    2. Easy Set-up: It is normally easier to set-up because many industrial facilities already provide compressed air.

    3.Long Term Investment: Pneumatic equipment might be more expensive overall than hydraulic equipment, but generally it requires less maintenance and has a longer operating lifespan.

    4.Speed:Although air hoses aren’t made for high pressure applications, they provide for rapid movement operations.They are designed with speed in mind, not strength.

    The real-world applications for air hoses are seemingly beyond measure as they can be used in all forms of industrial automation.Air hoses can supply power to cylinders and vacuum pumps as well as funnel compressed air to jackhammers, staplers and impact tools.They can even be used to provide vehicle functionality for mobile equipment and can also be used in areas of agriculture, mining and drilling.Having been designed for age, weather, and oil resistance, this type of hose is suitable to transport air in multiple workplace environments and conditions.

    High Quality Of PTFE Rod From Tenglong Sealing

    PTFE Rodhas excellent resistance to most chemicals and solvents and is capable of operating at high and low temperatures. It also has a very low coefficient of friction and is commonly used in food contact applications. It provides good thermal stability and has good electrical properties, but is not suitable for wear application and is difficult to bond.

    Applications:

    Slide bearings, insulators and rollers.

    Key Features:

    Temperature: -200°C to +260°C.

    Very good sliding properties and anti-adhesive.

    Excellent resistance to chemicals and UV.

    Outstanding resistance to low and high temperatures.

    Food approved.

    Standards:

    Complies with EC No. 1953/2004 and EC No. 10/2011for plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food.

    Complies with FDA food regulations21 CFR 177.1550 and FDA 21 CFR 175.300.

    Offers a class UL94 V-0 flammability rating, meaning the polymer will self-extinguish after removal of flame.